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Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) References

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References and Resources

Bedner M, Lippa KA, Tai SS. An assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements in comparability studies conducted by the Vitamin D Metabolites Quality Assurance Program.external link disclaimer Clin Chim Acta. 2013;426:6-11.

Binkley N, Carter GD. Toward clarity in clinical vitamin D status assessment: 25(OH)D assay standardization.external link disclaimer Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2017 Dec;46(4):885-899.

Binkley N, Dawson-Hughes B, Durazo-Arvizu R, Thamm M, Tian L, Merkel JM, Jones JC, Carter GD, Sempos CT.  Vitamin D measurement standardization: The way out of the chaos.external link disclaimer J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017 Oct;173:117-121.

Binkley N, Krueger D, Cowgill CS, et al. Assay variation confounds the diagnosis of hypovitaminosis D: A call for standardization.external link disclaimer J Clin Endocrin Metab 2004;89:3152-3157.

Binkley N, Sempos CT. Standardizing vitamin D assays: the way forward.external link disclaimer J Bone Miner Res. 2014;29:1709-1714.

Brooks SPJ, Sempos CT. The importance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D assay standardization and the Vitamin D Standardization Program.external link disclaimer J AOAC Int. 2017 Sep 1;100(5):1223-1224.

Bunk DM. Reference materials and reference measurement procedures: an overview from a national metrology institute.external link disclaimer Clin Biochem Rev 2007;28:131-137.

Burdette CQ, Camara JE, Nalin F, Pritchett J, Sander LC, Carter GD, Jones J, Betz JM, Sempos CT, Wise SA. Establishing an accuracy basis for the Vitamin D External Quality Assessment Scheme (DEQAS).external link disclaimer J AOAC Int. 2017 Sep 1;100(5):1277-1287.

Camara J, Hoofnagle A, Carter G, Sempos C. Take two: Gearing up for the next vitamin D commutability study.external link disclaimer Clin Lab News 2015 February 1:8.

Carter GD. Accuracy of 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays: confronting the issues.external link disclaimer Current Drug Targets 2011;12:19-28.

Carter GD, Berry J, Durazo-Arvizu R, Gunter E, Jones G, Jones J, Makin HLJ, Pattni P, Sempos CT, Twomey P, Williams EL, Wise SA. Hydroxyvitamin D assays: An historical perspective from DEQAS.external link disclaimer J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2018 Mar;177:30-35.

Carter GD, Berry J, Durazo-Arvizu R, Gunter E, Jones G, Jones J, Makin HLJ, Pattni P, Phinney KW, Sempos CT, Williams EL. Quality assessment of vitamin D metabolite assays used by clinical and research laboratories.external link disclaimer J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017 Oct;173:100-104.

Carter GD, Phinney KW. Assessing vitamin D status: time for a rethink?external link disclaimer Clin Chem. 2014;60:809-811.

Cashman KD, Dowling KG, Škrabáková Z, Gonzalez-Gross M, Valtueña J, De Henauw S, Moreno L, Damsgaard CT, Michaelsen KF, Mølgaard C, Jorde R, Grimnes G, Moschonis G, Mavrogianni C, Manios Y, Thamm M, Mensink GB, Rabenberg M, Busch MA, Cox L, Meadows S, Goldberg G, Prentice A, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Pilz S, Swart KM, van Schoor NM, Lips P, Eiriksdottir G, Gudnason V, Cotch MF, Koskinen S, Lamberg-Allardt C, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Sempos CT, Kiely M. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe: pandemic?external link disclaimer Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr;103(4):1033-44.

Cashman KD, Hayes A, Galvin K, Merkel J, Jones G, Kaufmann M, Hoofnagle AN, Carter GD, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Sempos CT. Significance of serum 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the assessment of vitamin D status: a double-edged sword?external link disclaimer Clin Chem 2015;61:636-645.

Cashman KD, Holvik K, Andersen R, Linneberg A, Lamberg-Allardt C, Tetens I, Gronberg IM, Meyer HE, Keily M, Dowling K, Skrabakova Z, Lundqvist A, Koponen P, Sundvall J, Koskinen S, Nystrup LL, Thuesen BH, Sempos CT, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Skrakova Z. Standardizing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data from four Nordic population samples using the Vitamin D Standardization Program protocols: shedding new light on vitamin D status in Nordic individuals.external link disclaimer Scand J Clin Lab Inves. 2015;75:549-561.

Cashman KD, Kiely M, Kinsella M, et al. Evaluation of Vitamin D Standardization Program protocols for standardizing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data: a case study of the program’s potential for National Nutrition/Health Surveys.external link disclaimer Am J Clin Nutr 2013;97:1235-1242.

Durazo-Arvizu RA, Tian L, Brooks SPJ, Sarafin K, Cashman KD, Kiely M, Merkel J, Myers GL, Coates PM, Sempos CT. The Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) manual for retrospective laboratory standardization of serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D data.external link disclaimer J AOAC Int. 2017 Sep 1;100(5):1234-1243.

Durazo-Arvizu RA, Dawson-Hughes B, Kramer H, Cao G, Merkel J, Coates PM, Sempos CT. The reverse J-shaped association between serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and all-cause mortality: the impact of assay standardization.external link disclaimer Am J Epidemiol. 2017 Apr 15;185(8):720-726.

Gaksch M, Jorde R, Grimnes G, Joakimsen R, Schirmer H, Wilsgaard T, Mathiesen EB, Njølstad I, Løchen ML, März W, Kleber ME, Tomaschitz A, Grübler M, Eiriksdottir G, Gudmundsson EF, Harris TB, Cotch MF, Aspelund T, Gudnason V, Rutters F, Beulens JW, van 't Riet E, Nijpels G, Dekker JM, Grove-Laugesen D, Rejnmark L, Busch MA, Mensink GB, Scheidt-Nave C, Thamm M, Swart KM, Brouwer IA, Lips P, van Schoor NM, Sempos CT, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Škrabáková Z, Dowling KG, Cashman KD, Kiely M, Pilz S. Vitamin D and mortality: Individual participant data meta-analysis of standardized 25-hydroxyvitamin D in 26916 individuals from a European consortium. external link disclaimerPLoS One. 2017 Feb 16;12(2):e0170791. 

Ihara H, Kiuchi S, Ishige T, Nishimura M, Matsushita K, Satoh M, Nomura F, Yamashita M, Kitajima I, Tsugawa N, Okano T, Hirota K, Miura M, Totani M, Hashizume N; Nutrition Division, Japan Society of Clinical Chemistry. Surveillance evaluation of the standardization of assay values for serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in Japan.external link disclaimer Ann Clin Biochem. 2018 Jan 1:4563218765570. 

Jones G. Interpreting vitamin D assay results: proceed with caution.external link disclaimer Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Feb 6;10(2):331-4.

Makowski AJ, Rathmacher JA, Horst RL, Sempos CT. Simplified 25-hydroxyvitamin D standardization and optimization in dried blood spots by LC-MS/MS.external link disclaimer J AOAC Int. 2017 Sep 1;100(5):1328-1336.

Miller WG, Jones GRD, Horowitz GL, et al. Proficiency testing/external quality assessment: current challenges and future directions.external link disclaimer Clin Chem 2011;57:1670-1680.

Miller WG, Myers GL, Gantzer ML et al. Roadmap for harmonization of clinical laboratory methods.external link disclaimer Clin Chem 2011;57:1108-1117.

Phinney KW, Bedner M, Tai S S-C, et al. Development and certification of a standard reference material for vitamin D metabolites in human serum.external link disclaimer Anal Chem 2012;84:956-962.

Phinney KW, Sempos CT, Tai SS, Camara JE, Wise SA, Eckfeldt JH, Hoofnagle AN, Carter GD, Jones J, Myers GL, Durazo-Arvizu R, Miller WG, Bachmann LM, Young IS, Pettit J, Caldwell G, Liu A, Brooks SPJ, Sarafin K, Thamm M, Mensink GBM, Busch M, Rabenberg M, Cashman KD, Kiely M, Galvin K, Zhang JY, Kinsella M, Oh K, Lee SW, Jung CL, Cox L, Goldberg G, Guberg K, Meadows S, Prentice A, Tian L, Brannon PM, Lucas RM, Crump PM, Cavalier E, Merkel J, Betz JM. Baseline assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D reference material and proficiency testing/external quality assurance material commutability: a Vitamin D Standardization Program study.external link disclaimer J AOAC Int. 2017 Sep 1;100(5):1288-1293.

Phinney KW, Camara JE, Tai SS, Sander LC, Wise SA, De Grande LAC, Thienpont LM, Possolo AM, Toman B, Sempos CT, Betz JM, Coates PM. Value assignment of vitamin D metabolites in Vitamin D Standardization Program serum samples. external link disclaimerJ AOAC Int. 2017 Sep 1;100(5):1253-1259.

Phinney KW, Tai SS, Bedner M, Camara JE, Chia RRC, Sander LC, Sharpless KE, Wise SA, Yen JH, Schleicher RL, Chaudhary-Webb M, Maw KL, Rahmani Y, Betz JM, Merkel J, Sempos CT, Coates PM, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Sarafin K, Brooks SPJ. Development of an improved standard reference material for vitamin D metabolites in human serum.external link disclaimer Anal Chem. 2017 May 2;89(9):4907-4913.

Rabenberg M, Scheidt-Nave C, Busch MA, Thamm M, Rieckmann N, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Dowling KG, Škrabáková Z, Cashman KD, Sempos CT, Mensink GBM. Implications of standardization of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data for the evaluation of vitamin D status in Germany, including a temporal analysis.external link disclaimer BMC Public Health. 2018 Jul 6;18(1):845.

Sander LC, Bedner M, Duewer DL, Lippa KA, Phillips MM, Phinney KW, Rimmer CA, Schantz MM, Sharpless KE, Tai SS, Thomas JB, Wise SA, Wood LJ, Betz JM, Coates PM. The development and implementation of quality assurance programs to support nutritional measurements.external link disclaimer Anal Bioanal Chem.2013;405:4437-4441.

Sarafin K, Durazo-Arvizu R, Tian L, Phinney KW, Tai S, Camara JE, Merkel J, Green E, Sempos CT, Brooks SP. Standardizing 25-hydroxyvitamin D values from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.external link disclaimer Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Nov;102(5):1044-50.

Sempos CT. Standardization of vitamin D assays: The past and present dilemma for vitamin D research. Standardy Medycne 2015;12:805-809.

Sempos CT, Betz JM, Camara JE, Carter GD, Cavalier E, Clarke MW, Dowling KG, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Hoofnagle AN, Liu A, Phinney KW, Sarafin K, Wise SA, Coates PM. General steps to standardize the laboratory measurement of serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin Dexternal link disclaimer. J AOAC Int. 2017 Sep 1;100(5):1230-1233. 

Sempos CT, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Binkley N, Jones J, Merkel JM, Carter GD. Developing vitamin D dietary guidelines and the lack of 25-hydroxyvitamin D assay standardization: The ever-present past.external link disclaimer  J Steroid Bioch Molec Biol 2015; Aug 28. pii: S0960-0760(15)30059-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2015.08.027. [Epub ahead of print]

Sempos CT, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Carter GD. Cost effective measures to standardize serum 25(OH)D values from completed studies.external link disclaimer Osteoporos Int. 2017 May;28(5):1503-1505.

Sempos CT, Durazo-Arvizu R, Dawson-Hughes B, Yetley EA, Looker AC, Schleicher R, Cao G, Burt V, Kramer H, Bailey R, Dwyer J, Zhang X, Gahche J, Thomas PR, Coates PM, Picciano MF. Is there a reverse J-shaped association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and all-cause mortality? results from the US nationally representative NHANES.external link disclaimer J Clin End and Metab 2013;98:3001-3009.

Sempos CT, Heijboer AC, Bikle DD, Bollerslev J, Bouillon R, Brannon PM, DeLuca HF, Jones G, Munns CF, Bilezikian JP, Giustina A, Binkley N. Vitamin D assays and the definition of hypovitaminosis D: results from the First International Conference on Controversies in Vitamin D.external link disclaimer Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 May 31.

Sempos CT, Vesper HW, Phinney KW, et al. Vitamin D status as an international issue: national surveys and the problem of standardization.external link disclaimer Scand J Clin Lab Inves 2012;72(Suppl 243): 32-40.

Stepman HCM, Vanderroost A, Van Uytfanghe K, et al. Candidate reference measurement procedures for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 by using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.external link disclaimer Clin Chem 2011;57:441-448.

Stöckl D, Sluss PM, Thienpont LM. Specifications for trueness and precision of a reference measurement system for serum/plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D analysis.external link disclaimer Clin Chem Acta 2009;408:8-13.

Tai SS-C, Bedner M, Phinney KW. Development of a candidate reference measurement procedure for the determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 in human serum using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.external link disclaimer Anal Chem 2010;82:1942-1948.

Tai S, Nelson MA. Candidate reference measurement procedure for the determination of (24R),25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human serum using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography−tandem mass spectrometryexternal link disclaimer. Anal Chem 2015;87:7964-7970.

Tai SS, Nelson MA, Bedner M, Lang BE, Phinney KW, Sander LC, Yen JH, Betz JM, Sempos CT, Wise SA. Development of Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2973 Vitamin D Metabolites in Frozen Human Serum (High Level).external link disclaimer J AOAC Int. 2017 Sep 1;100(5):1294-1303. 

Taylor CL, Carriquiry AL, Bailey RL, Sempos CT, Yetley EA. Appropriateness of the probability approach with a nutrient status biomarker to assess population inadequacy: a study using vitamin D.external link disclaimer Am J Clin Nutr 2013;97:72-78.

Thienpont LM, Stepman HCM, Vesper HW. Standardization of measurements of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 and D2.external link disclaimer Scand J Clin Lab Inves 2012;72(Suppl 243):41-49.

Tian L, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Myers G, Brooks S, Sarafin K, Sempos CT. The estimation of calibration equations for variables with heteroscedastic measurement error.external link disclaimer Stat Med 2014;33:4420-4436.

Wise SA, Tai SS, Burdette CQ, Camara JE, Bedner M, Lippa KA, Nelson MA, Nalin F, Phinney KW, Sander LC, Betz JM, Sempos CT, Coates PM. Role of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Support of the Vitamin D Initiative of the National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements.external link disclaimer J AOAC Int. 2017 Sep 1;100(5):1260-1276.

Wise SA, Phinney KW, Tai SS, Camara JE, Myers GL, Durazo-Arvizu R, Tian L, Hoofnagle AN, Bachmann LM, Young IS, Pettit J, Caldwell G, Liu A, Brooks SPJ, Sarafin K, Thamm M, Mensink GBM, Busch M, Rabenberg M, Cashman KD, Kiely M, Kinsella M, Galvin K, Zhang JY, Oh K, Lee SW, Jung CL, Cox L, Goldberg G, Guberg K, Prentice A, Carter GD, Jones J, Brannon PM, Lucas RM, Crump PM, Cavalier E, Merkel J, Betz JM, Sempos CT. Baseline assessment of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Assay Performance: A Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) Interlaboratory Comparison Study. external link disclaimerJ AOAC Int. 2017 Sep 1;100(5):1244-1252.

Wise SA, Tai SS, Nelson MA, Burdette CQ, Camara JE, Hoofnagle AN, Laha TJ, Carter GD, Jones J, Williams EL, Barclay ZJ, Jones G, Kaufmann M, Binkley N, Kapoor A, Ziegler T, Cashman KD, Dowling KG, Sempos CT. Interlaboratory comparison for the determination of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ in human serum using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.external link disclaimer J AOAC Int. 2017 Sep 1;100(5):1308-1317.