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The Use and Biology of Energy Drinks: Current Knowledge and Critical Gaps

This workshop was held on August 15-16, 2013 in Rockville, Maryland.

Background

"Energy" drinks are marketed as promoting alertness, concentration, energy, weight loss, athletic performance or stamina. Products within the scope of this workshop contain caffeine and other ingredients such as amino acids, vitamins, herbal supplements and sugar or other sweeteners. These drinks are the fastest growing component of the U.S. beverage market; half the consumers of these products are under 25. The published data on the biological effects of many of the ingredients in these products, and on their effects when combined, are limited.

Workshop Goal

The workshop brought together and summarized relevant research on the use and biology of energy drinks and highlighted the most critical research gaps. Specifically, the workshop summarized the research on:

  • Patterns of energy drink use in the U.S. population and population subgroups, including young adults and children, minorities, and the military;
  • The safety of energy drinks and their ingredients;
  • The effects of energy drinks and their ingredients on alertness, fatigue, sleep, cognitive function and mental health, and on physiological functions such as glucose homeostasis, weight, and athletic performance.

Co-sponsors

The workshop was co-sponsored by the Office of Dietary Supplements, the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases at the National Institutes of Health, and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Additional members of the organizing committee included the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, and the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, at the National Institutes of Health.

Workshop Summary

The Use and Biology of Energy Drinks: Current Knowledge and Critical Gaps Workshop Summary.

Agenda

Day 1 | Day 2

Day 1 — Thursday, August 15, 2013

8:30 A.M.

Welcome and Introduction: Goals and Objectives
Paul M. Coates and Barbara C. Sorkin — Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Background

8:50 A.M.

Summary of the 2009 National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-ODS Workshop on Caffeine
Jag Khalsa — NIDA, NIH

9:10 A.M.

How Developmental Changes in Sleep Biology May Affect Adolescent Behavior
Mary Carskadon — Brown University

9:30 A.M.

Break

Sessions 1 and 2

Co-chairs: Mary Carskadon — Brown University and Patty Deuster — Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS)

9:45 A.M.

Session 1: Patterns of Use—Who, What, When, Why?

The Use of Caffeine-Containing Dietary Supplements and Beverages in the U.S.
Regan Bailey — ODS, NIH

Caffeine Intakes from Beverages in the U.S.
Alison Kretser — International Life Sciences Institute

Caffeine Use in Children and Adolescents: Impact on Sleep and Alertness
Judith Owens — Children’s National Medical Center

Energy Drink Use and High-Risk Behaviors: Research Evidence and Knowledge Gaps
Amelia Arria — University of Maryland

10:50 A.M.

Session 2: Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Activities

Regulatory Status of Caffeine
Antonia Mattia — Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN), FDA

Report from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Planning Committee for a Workshop on Potential Health Hazards Associated with Consumption of Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements
Lynn R. Goldman — George Washington University

11:20 A.M.

Keynote: Energy Products in a 24/7 World: Illustrations from the Research and Possible Research Gaps
Introduction: Michael Twery — National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), NIH
David Dinges — University of Pennsylvania

12:00 NOON

Lunch Break (on your own)

1:15 P.M.

Circadian Rhythm and Metabolism
Heekyung Hong — Northwestern University

Session 3

Co-Chairs: David Dinges — University of Pennsylvania and Barbara C. Sorkin — ODS, NIH

1:35 P.M.

Session 3: Energy Drinks, Cognition, Mental Health, and Behavior

Energy Product Use for Alertness in the Military
Nancy J. Wesensten — Center for Military Psychiatry and Neurosciences Research

Energy Drink Components: Effects on Mood and Behavior
Emma L. Childs — University of Chicago

Energy Drinks Mixed with Alcohol: What Are the Risks?
Cecile Marczinski — Northern Kentucky University

2:40 P.M.

Break

3:00 P.M.

Panel Discussion: Sessions 1–3

  • What are the five most critical research gaps?
  • Are other next steps needed to support that research?

4:00 P.M.

Adjourn Day 1

Day 2 — Friday, August 16, 2013

Sessions 4 and 5

Co-Chairs: Terry Graham — University of Guelph and Padma Maruvada — National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), NIH

9:00 A.M.

Session 4: Health Disparities and Energy Drinks

Disparities in Energy Product Use, Sleep, and Health Outcomes
Michael Grandner — University of Pennsylvania

9:30 A.M.

Session 5: Energy Drinks and Metabolism

Lessons Learned from Military Populations
Mark Stephens — USUHS

Energy Drinks: Unwanted Side Effects and Performance Outcomes
Ricardo Mora-Rodríguez — University of Castilla-La Mancha

The Effects of Caffeine and Energy Drinks on Skeletal Muscle Metabolism
Terry Graham — University of Guelph

Whole Body and Tissue-Specific Effects of Energy Drinks on Metabolism: Beyond Skeletal Muscle
Jane Shearer — University of Calgary

10:50 A.M.

Break

11:00 A.M.

Panel Discussion: Sessions 4 and 5

  • What are the five most critical research gaps?
  • Are other next steps needed to support that research?

12:00 NOON

Adjourn