NIH CARBON/Botanical Research Centers Program:
Plants & Phytochemicals

Plants and phytochemicals studied by the Botanical Dietary Supplements Research Centers of the NIH CARBON Program

Over the years since 1998 the Botanical Dietary Supplements Research Centers of the NIH CARBON Program have studied many different preparations of many different botanicals, as well as a variety of phytochemicals present in those botanicals. We have listed most of those botanicals below, alphabetically (by the common name, or by the Latin binomial where the common name is less familiar), along with the Centers that studied them.

For the published results of this research, please see the information on the Centers which performed the research.

  1. Plant
    Botanical Research Center
    Plant Part
    Preparation
    Publications
  2. Aframomum melegueta Schum (grains of paradise)
    seeds
    ethanol extract
    Ilic N, Schmidt BM, Poulev A, Raskin I. Toxicological evaluation of grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) [Roscoe] K. Schum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Feb 3;127(2):352-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.10.031.
  3. Alaskan wild berries: (Vaccinium ovalifolium, V. uliginosum, Rubus chamaemorus, R. spectabilis, Empetrum nigrum)
    berries
    methanol extract (99.7% methanol, 0.3% trifluoroacetic acid)
    Kellogg J, Wang J, Flint C, Ribnicky D, Kuhn P, De Mejia EG, Raskin I, Lila MA. Alaskan wild berry resources and human health under the cloud of climate change. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Apr 14;58(7):3884-900. doi: 10.1021/jf902693r.
  4. Angelica sinensis OLIV. (Dang qui)
    Liu J, Burdette JE, Xu H, Gu C, van Breemen RB, Bhat KP, Booth N, Constantinou AI, Pezzuto JM, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Bolton JL. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 May;49(5):2472-9. doi: 10.1021/jf0014157.

    Duric K, Liu Y, Chen SN, Lankin DC, Nikolic D, McAlpine JB, Friesen JB, Pauli GF. Studying mass balance and the stability of (Z)-ligustilide from Angelica sinensis helps to bridge a botanical instability-bioactivity chasm. J Nat Prod. 2019 Sep 27;82(9):2400-2408. doi: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.8b00962.
  5. Artemisia dracunculus L. (French tarragon)
    total herb above the root mass
    80% ethanol extract; (Tarralin, PMI-5011, DMC-2 (dimethylchalcone))
  6. Artemisia santolinaefolia
    dried whole plant
    80% ethanol extract
  7. Artemisia scoparia
    dried whole plant
    80% ethanol extract
  8. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L).
    dried roots
    boiling water extract, 80g:1 L water.
    Cabey K, Long DM, Law A, Gray NE, McClure C, Caruso M, Lak P, Wright KM, Stevens JF, Maier CS, Soumyanath A, Kretzschmar D. Withania somnifera and Centella asiatica extracts ameliorate behavioral deficits in an in vivo Drosophila melanogaster model of oxidative stress. Antioxidants (Basel). 2022 Jan 6;11(1):121. doi: 10.3390/antiox11010121.
      
  9. Astragalus membranaceus (Huang-qi)
    Hong F, Xiao W, Ragupathi G, Lau CB, Leung PC, Yeung KS, George C, Cassileth B, Kennelly E, Livingston PO. The known immunologically active components of Astragalus account for only a small proportion of the immunological adjuvant activity when combined with conjugate vaccines. Planta Med. 2011 May;77(8):817-24. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1250574.
  10. Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)
    Overk CR, Yao P, Chen S, Deng S, Imai A, Main M, Schinkovitz A, Farnsworth NR, Pauli GF, Bolton JL. High-content screening and mechanism-based evaluation of estrogenic botanical extracts. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2008 May;11(4):283-93. doi: 10.2174/138620708784246022.  
  11. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia)
    fruits
    alcohol extract
    Yu Y, Zhang XH, Ebersole B, Ribnicky D, Wang ZQ. Bitter melon extract attenuating hepatic steatosis may be mediated by FGF21 and AMPK/Sirt1 signaling in mice. Sci Rep. 2013 Nov 5;3:3142. doi: 10.1038/srep03142.  
     
  12. Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium)
  13. Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa NUTT.)
    rhizomes and roots
    methanol extract
    Liu J, Burdette JE, Xu H, Gu C, van Breemen RB, Bhat KP, Booth N, Constantinou AI, Pezzuto JM, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Bolton JL. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 May;49(5):2472-9. doi: 10.1021/jf0014157.  

    Geller SE, Shulman LP, van Breemen RB, Banuvar S, Zhou Y, Epstein G, Hedayat S, Nikolic D, Krause EC, Piersen CE, Bolton JL, Pauli GF, Farnsworth NR. Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: a randomized controlled trial. Menopause. 2009 Nov-Dec;16(6):1156-66. doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e3181ace49b.
  14. Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L., Papaveraceae)
    flowers, leaves, rhizomes, roots
    50% ethyl alcohol, room temperature and hot water
  15. Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)
    Berry juice concentrate
    polyphenol-enriched aqueous extract or defatted soy flour-bound juice fraction
  16. Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton)
    Grace MH, Ribnicky DM, Kuhn P, Poulev A, Logendra S, Yousef GG, Raskin I, Lila MA. Hypoglycemic activity of a novel anthocyanin-rich formulation from lowbush blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton. Phytomedicine. 2009 May;16(5):406-15. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2009.02.018

     
  17. Bonellia macrocarpa
    root bark
    cited as purified bonediol, hexane-soluble fraction from methanol extract
    Moo-Puc R, Caamal-Fuentes E, Peraza-Sánchez SR, Slusarz A, Jackson G, Drenkhahn SK, Lubahn DB. Antiproliferative and antiestrogenic activities of bonediol an alkyl catechol from Bonellia macrocarpa. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:847457. doi: 10.1155/2015/847457. Epub 2015 Oct 18.
  18. Borage (Borago officinalis L.)
    Sergeant S, Hallmark B, Mathias RA, Mustin TL, Ivester P, Bohannon ML, Ruczinski I, Johnstone L, Seeds MC, Chilton FH. Prospective clinical trial examining the impact of genetic variation in FADS1 on the metabolism of linoleic acid- and ɣ-linolenic acid-containing botanical oils. Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 May 1;111(5):1068-1078. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa023.

     
  19. Boswellia serrata
    Powder from dried resin/gum
    hexane extract
    Kiela PR, Midura AJ, Kuscuoglu N, Jolad SD, Sólyom AM, Besselsen DG, Timmermann BN, Ghishan FK. Effects of Boswellia serrata in mouse models of chemically induced colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005 Apr;288(4):G798-808. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00433.2004.

     
  20. Carrot (Daucus carota L.)
    roots
    sequential organic extractions
    Overk CR, Yao P, Chen S, Deng S, Imai A, Main M, Schinkovitz A, Farnsworth NR, Pauli GF, Bolton JL. High-content screening and mechanism-based evaluation of estrogenic botanical extracts. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2008 May;11(4):283-93. doi: 10.2174/138620708784246022.     
  21. Catnip (Nepeta cataria)
    leaves and flowers
    acetone extract
    Duppong LM, Delate K, Liebman M, Horton R, Romero F, Kraus G, Petrich J, Chowdbury PK. The effect of natural mulches on crop performance, weed suppression and biochemical constituents of catnip and St. John's wort. Crop Sci. 2004;44(3):861-869.

     
  22. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Gotu kola)
    dried aerial tops
    boiling water extract, 80g herb:1 L water
    Wright KM, McFerrin J, Alcázar Magaña A, Roberts J, Caruso M, Kretzschmar D, Stevens JF, Maier CS, Quinn JF, Soumyanath A. Developing a rational, optimized product of Centella asiatica for examination in clinical trials: real world challenges. Front Nutr. 2022 Jan 14;8:799137. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2021.799137 .   
     
  23. (Tart) Cherry (Prunus cerasus)
    Losso JN, Finley JW, Karki N, Liu AG, Prudente A, Tipton R, Yu Y, Greenway FL. Pilot study of the tart cherry juice for the treatment of insomnia and investigation of mechanisms. Am J Ther. 2018 Mar/Apr;25(2):e194-e201. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0000000000000584.    

     
  24. Chicory (Cichorium intybus)
    dried root
    95% ethanol extract
    Schmidt BM, Ilic N, Poulev A, Raskin I. Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Jul;45(7):1131-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2006.12.019.  

     
  25. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao)
  26. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon AITON)
    dried stems, leaves
    DNA extract
    Xu H, Fabricant DS, Piersen CE, Bolton JL, Pezzuto JM, Fong H, Totura S, Farnsworth NR, Constantinou AI. A preliminary RAPD-PCR analysis of Cimicifuga species and other botanicals used for women's health. Phytomedicine. 2002 Dec;9(8):757-62. doi: 10.1078/094471102321621403.  
     
  27. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon)
    berries
    concentrate powder, urine from female Fischer-344 rats
    Rajbhandari R, Peng N, Moore R, Arabshahi A, Wyss JM, Barnes S, Prasain JK. Determination of cranberry phenolic metabolites in rats by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Jun 22;59(12):6682-8. doi: 10.1021/jf200673h.  
     
  28. Curcuma comosa
    Su J, Sripanidkulchai K, Wyss JM, Sripanidkulchai B. Curcuma comosa improves learning and memory function on ovariectomized rats in a long-term Morris water maze test. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jul 6;130(1):70-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.04.012.
     

     
  29. Dogwood (Cornus officinalis Sieb. & Zucc.)
    fruits
    sequential organic extractions
    Overk CR, Yao P, Chen S, Deng S, Imai A, Main M, Schinkovitz A, Farnsworth NR, Pauli GF, Bolton JL. High-content screening and mechanism-based evaluation of estrogenic botanical extracts. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2008 May;11(4):283-93. doi: 10.2174/138620708784246022.    

     
  30. Echinacea purpurea (L.) (purple coneflower)
    Fusco D, Liu X, Savage C, Taur Y, Xiao W, Kennelly E, Yuan J, Cassileth B, Salvatore M, Papanicolaou GA. Echinacea purpurea aerial extract alters course of influenza infection in mice. Vaccine. 2010 May 21;28(23):3956-62. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.03.047.  
  31. Echinacea angustifolia (DC..) (Kansas snakeroot, narrow-leaved purple coneflower)
  32. Echinacea spp. (angustifolia, pallida, purpurea, paradoxa, sanguinea, simulata, tennesseensis, atrorubens, laevigata)
  33. Echium (Echium plantagineum L.)
  34. Elderberry, European elder (Sambucus nigra)
    drupes
    methanol extract of juice
    Johnson MC, Thomas AL, Greenlief CM. Impact of Frozen Storage on the Anthocyanin and Polyphenol Content of American Elderberry Fruit Juice. J Agric Food Chem. 2015; 63: 5653–5659. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b01702
     
  35. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum)
    seeds
    ground and incorporated into diet
    Bruce-Keller AJ, Richard AJ, Fernandez-Kim SO, Ribnicky DM, Salbaum JM, Newman S, Carmouche R, Stephens JM. Fenugreek counters the effects of high fat diet on gut microbiota in mice: links to metabolic benefit. Sci Rep. 2020 Jan 27;10(1):1245. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-58005-7.

     
  36. Flax (Linum usitatissimum)
    Chilton FH, Rudel LL, Parks JS, Arm JP, Seeds MC. Mechanisms by which botanical lipids affect inflammatory disorders. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb;87(2):498S-503S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/87.2.498S.
     
  37. Garcinia kola Heckel (Bitter nut)
    seeds
    combined organic fractions from ground seeds
    Okunji C, Komarnytsky S, Fear G, Poulev A, Ribnicky DM, Awachie PI, Ito Y, Raskin I. Preparative isolation and identification of tyrosinase inhibitors from the seeds of Garcinia kola by high-speed counter-current chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2007 Jun 1;1151(1-2):45-50. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2007.02.085.  
     
     
  38. Garlic (Allium sativum)
    aged cloves
    aqueous extract
    Zhou H, Qu Z, Mossine VV, Nknolise DL, Li J, Chen Z, Cheng J, Greenlief CM, Mawhinney TP, Brown PN, Fritsche KL, Hannink M, Lubahn DB, Sun GY, Gu Z. Proteomic analysis of the effects of aged garlic extract and its FruArg component on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory response in microglial cells. PLoS One. 2014 Nov 24;9(11):e113531. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113531.  
     
  39. Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
    root extract, gingerols
    dichloromethane extract
    Jolad SD, Lantz RC, Solyom AM, Jie Chen G, Bates RB, Timmermann BN. Fresh organically grown ginger (Zingiber officinale): composition and effects on LPS-induced PGE2 production. Phytochemistry;65(13):1937-54. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.06.008.
  40. Ginkgo biloba L.
    dried stems, leaves, roots
    DNA extract
    Xu H, Fabricant DS, Piersen CE, Bolton JL, Pezzuto JM, Fong H, Totura S, Farnsworth NR, Constantinou AI. A preliminary RAPD-PCR analysis of Cimicifuga species and other botanicals used for women's health. Phytomedicine. 2002 Dec;9(8):757-62. doi: 10.1078/094471102321621403.   
     
  41. Ginseng (Chinese or Korean) (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer)
    Liu J, Burdette JE, Xu H, Gu C, van Breemen RB, Bhat KP, Booth N, Constantinou AI, Pezzuto JM, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Bolton JL. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 May;49(5):2472-9. doi: 10.1021/jf0014157.     

     
  42. American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.)
    Liu J, Burdette JE, Xu H, Gu C, van Breemen RB, Bhat KP, Booth N, Constantinou AI, Pezzuto JM, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Bolton JL. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 May;49(5):2472-9. doi: 10.1021/jf0014157.     

     
  43. Gotu kola (Centella asiatica (L.) Urban)
    dried aerial tops
    boiling water extract, 80g herb:1 L water
    Wright KM, McFerrin J, Alcázar Magaña A, Roberts J, Caruso M, Kretzschmar D, Stevens JF, Maier CS, Quinn JF, Soumyanath A. Developing a rational, optimized product of Centella asiatica for examination in clinical trials: real world challenges. Front Nutr. 2022 Jan 14;8:799137. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2021.799137.
  44. Grape (Vitis vinifera)
    phenolic enriched fraction from pomace
    ethyl acetate, water
  45. Grape (Vitis vinifera)
    grape cell suspension cultures
    NA
    Janle EM, Lila MA, Grannan M, Wood L, Higgins A, Yousef GG, Rogers RB, Kim H, Jackson GS, Ho L, Weaver CM. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 14C-labeled grape polyphenols in the periphery and the central nervous system following oral administration. J Med Food. 2010;13(4):926-33. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2009.0157.
  46. Grape (Vitis vinifera)
  47. (Green) tea (Camellia sinensis)
    leaves
    proprietary extract and purchased catechins
    Sartippour MR, Heber D, Ma J, Lu Q, Go VL, Nguyen M. Green tea and its catechins inhibit breast cancer xenografts. Nutr Cancer. 2001;40(2):149-56. doi: 10.1207/S15327914NC402_11.
  48. (Green) tea (Camellia sinensis)
  49. Groundsel (Baccharis halimifolia)
    lyophilized plant
    80% aqueous ethanol
    Boudreau A, Cheng DM, Ruiz C, Ribnicky D, Allain L, Brassieur CR, Turnipseed DP, Cefalu WT, Floyd ZE. Screening native botanicals for bioactivity: an interdisciplinary approach. Nutrition. 2014 Jul-Aug;30(7-8 Suppl):S11-6. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.02.028. Epub 2014 Mar 15.  
     
  50. Hoodia gordonii (Hoodia)
    dried aerial parts
    methanol-dichloromethane
    Komarnytsky S, Esposito D, Poulev A, Raskin I. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23065845/. J Cell Physiol. 2013 May;228(5):1120-6. doi: 10.1002/jcp.24262.
  51. Hops (Humulus lupulus)
    Liu J, Burdette JE, Xu H, Gu C, van Breemen RB, Bhat KP, Booth N, Constantinou AI, Pezzuto JM, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Bolton JL. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 May;49(5):2472-9. doi: 10.1021/jf0014157.
  52. Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata)
    United States Department of Agriculture no. PI 434246. hairy root cultures
    80% aqueous methanol
    Mun JG, Lachcik PJ, Rogers RB, Yousef GG, Grace MH, Janle EM, Wu QL, Simon JE, Weaver CM, Lila MA. Tracking deposition of a 14C-radiolabeled kudzu hairy root-derived isoflavone-rich fraction into bone. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010; 235(10):1224-35. doi: 10.1258/ebm.2010.010134.

     
  53. Kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi.))
    aerial parts
    petroleum ether, dichloromethane, 75% ethanol
    Overk CR, Yao P, Chen S, Deng S, Imai A, Main M, Schinkovitz A, Farnsworth NR, Pauli GF, Bolton JL. High-content screening and mechanism-based evaluation of estrogenic botanical extracts. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2008 May;11(4):283-93. doi: 10.2174/138620708784246022.
  54. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)
    leaf flavonoids
    methanol or water
    Cheng DM, Pogrebnyak N, Kuhn P, Poulev A, Waterman C, Rojas-Silva P, Johnson WD, Raskin I. Polyphenol-rich Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce improves glucose metabolism and liver lipid accumulation in diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. Nutrition. 2014 Jul-Aug;30(7-8 Suppl):S52-8. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.02.022.
  55. Licorice (Glycyrrhiza sp)
    glabra, inflata, uralensis (isoliquritigenin, liquiritigenin, licochalcone A)
    methanol
    Liu J, Burdette JE, Xu H, Gu C, van Breemen RB, Bhat KP, Booth N, Constantinou AI, Pezzuto JM, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Bolton JL. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 May;49(5):2472-9. doi: 10.1021/jf0014157.
  56. Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)
    powdered root and isolated constituents
    methanol extract
    Boonmuen N, Gong P, Ali Z, Chittiboyina AG, Khan I, Doerge DR, Helferich WG, Carlson KE, Martin T, Piyachaturawat P, Katzenellenbogen JA, Katzenellenbogen BS. Licorice root components in dietary supplements are selective estrogen receptor modulators with a spectrum of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities. Steroids. 2016 Jan;105:42-9. doi: 10.1016/j.steroids.2015.11.006
  57. Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis)
    freeze-dried berries
    anthocyanin-enriched material from methanol extraction, see Rojo LE, et al.
    Lila MA, Ribnicky DM, Rojo LE, Rojas-Silva P, Oren A, Havenaar R, Janle EM, Raskin I, Yousef GG, Grace MH. Complementary approaches to gauge the bioavailability and distribution of ingested berry polyphenolics. J Agric Food Chem. 2012; 60(23): 5763–5771. doi: 10.1021/jf203526h.
  58. Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa)
    fruiting bodies
    made under patented methods (Japan Pat. No. 2859843/US Pat. No. 5,854,404) and provided by Yuikiguni Maitake Corp. through the Tradeworks group
    Lin H, De Stanchina E, Zhou XK, She Y, Hoang D, Cheung SW, Cassileth B, Cunningham-Rundles S. Maitake beta-glucan enhances umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation in the NOD/SCID mouse. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2009 Mar;234(3):342-53. doi: 10.3181/0807-RM-226.
  59. Malanga (or cocoyam or yautia) (Xanthosoma sagittifolium)
  60. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.)
    AbouZid SF, Chen S-N, Pauli GF. Silymarin content in Silybum marianum populations growing in Egypt. Ind Crops Prod. 2016. 83: 729–737. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.12.012
  61. Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata L.)
    dried, milled aerial parts
    methanol extract
  62. Moringa oleifera
    seed, MIC-1, Moringa isothiocyanates
    ethanol extract
    Jaja-Chimedza A, Zhang L, Wolff K, Graf BL, Kuhn P, Moskal K, Carmouche R, Newman S, Salbaum JM, Raskin I. A dietary isothiocyanate-enriched moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed extract improves glucose tolerance in a high-fat-diet mouse model and modulates the gut microbiome. J Funct Foods. 2018 Aug;47:376-385. doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2018.05.056.     
  63. Nettle (stinging) (Urtica dioica)
    above ground parts
    80% ethanol extract
  64. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)
    Mushroom above ground parts
    ethanol extract
    Jedinak A, Dudhgaonkar S, Jiang J, Sandusky G, Sliva D. Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits colitis-related colon carcinogenesis in mice. Int J Mol Med. 2010 Nov;26(5):643-50. doi: 10.3892/ijmm_00000509.       
  65. Pepper (Bird) (Capsicum annuum)
    NA
    commercially available compounds
    Zhou Q, Zhu Y, Chiang H, Yagiz K, Morre DJ, Morre DM, Janle E, Kissinger PT. Identification of the major vanilloid component in Capsicum extract by HPLC-EC and HPLC-MS. Phytochem Anal. 2004 Mar-Apr;15(2):117-20. doi: 10.1002/pca.754.  
  66. Piper multiplinervium
    NA
    Synthesized per reference
    Kraus GA, Chaudhary D, Riley S, Liu F, Schlapkohl A, Weems M, Phillips GJ. Synthesis of 3-farnesyl salicylic acid, a novel antimicrobial from Piper multiplinervium. Nat Prod Commun. 2013 Jul;8(7):911-3.    
  67. Plum (Prunus domestica)
    Pawlowski JW, Martin BR, McCabe GP, Ferruzzi MG, Weaver CM. Plum and soy aglycon extracts superior at increasing bone calcium retention in ovariectomized Sprague Dawley rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Jul 2;62(26):6108-17. doi: 10.1021/jf403310q.     
  68. Pomegranate (Punica granatum)
    Seeram NP, Zhang Y, McKeever R, Henning SM, Lee RP, Suchard MA, Li Z, Chen S, Thames G, Zerlin A, Nguyen M, Wang D, Dreher M, Heber D. Pomegranate juice and extracts provide similar levels of plasma and urinary ellagitannin metabolites in human subjects. J Med Food. 2008 Jun;11(2):390-4. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2007.650.
  69. Potato (Solanum tuberosum)
    protease inhibitors from juiced tubers
    aqueous extraction and fractionation
  70. Prunella vulgaris L. (Heal-all, self-heal)
    dried, ground upper flowering portions, harvested at peak flowering
    95% ethanol extract
    Qiang Z, Ye Z, Hauck C, Murphy PA, McCoy JA, Widrlechner MP, Reddy MB, Hendrich S. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Oct 11;137(3):1107-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.07.037.  
  71. Pueraria mirifica Airy, Shaw & Suvatabandhu (Kwao keur)
    bark and fruits
    sequential organic extraction
    Overk CR, Yao P, Chen S, Deng S, Imai A, Main M, Schinkovitz A, Farnsworth NR, Pauli GF, Bolton JL. High-content screening and mechanism-based evaluation of estrogenic botanical extracts. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2008 May;11(4):283-93. doi: 10.2174/138620708784246022.     
  72. Quillaja saponaria (soap tree)
    Adams MM, Damani P, Perl NR, Won A, Hong F, Livingston PO, Ragupathi G, Gin DY. Design and synthesis of potent Quillaja saponin vaccine adjuvants. J Am Chem Soc. 2010. 132(6):1939-45. doi: 10.1021/ja9082842.    
  73. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa)
    seed
    80% ethanol leachate
    Graf, BL, Poulev A, Kuhn P, Grace M, Lila MA, Raskin I. Quinoa seeds leach phytoecdysteroids and other compounds with anti-diabetic properties. Food Chem. 2014; 163:178-85. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.04.088.
  74. Raspberry (Rubus idaeus)
    whole-fruit red raspberry juice concentrate (FruitFast)
    phenolic-enriched, methanol-soluble fraction
  75. Red clover (Trifolium pratense)
    Liu J, Burdette JE, Xu H, Gu C, van Breemen RB, Bhat KP, Booth N, Constantinou AI, Pezzuto JM, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Bolton JL. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. J Agric Food Chem. 2001. 49(5):2472-9. doi: 10.1021/jf0014157.

    Geller SE, Shulman LP, van Breemen RB, Banuvar S, Zhou Y, Epstein G, Hedayat S, Nikolic D, Krause EC, Piersen CE, Bolton JL, Pauli GF, Farnsworth NR. Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: a randomized controlled trial. Menopause. 2009 Nov-Dec;16(6):1156-66. doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e3181ace49b.     
  76. Red clover (Trifolium pratense)
    suspension culture
    methanol extract
    Mun JG, Grannan MD, Lachcik PJ, Reppert A, Yousef GG, Rogers RB, Janle EM, Weaver CM, Lila MA. In vivo metabolic tracking of 14C-radiolabelled isoflavones in kudzu (Pueraria lobata) and red clover (Trifolium pratense) extracts. Br J Nutr. 2009 Nov;102(10):1523-30. doi: 10.1017/S000711450999047X.  
  77. Rhodiola rosea L.
    rhizome/root
    centrifugal partition chromatography
    Tang Y, Friesen JB, Lankin DC, McAlpine JB, Nikolić DS, Niemitz M, Seigler DS, Graham JG, Chen SN, Pauli GF. Quantum mechanics-based structure analysis of cyclic monoterpene glycosides from Rhodiola rosea. J Nat Prod. 2020. 83(6):1950-1959. doi: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.0c00212.     
  78. Rhodiola rosea L.
  79. Rice (Oryza sativa); Cultivars Cocodrie and IAC600 from USDA
    embryos and pericarps, ground
    70% methanol
  80. Rice (Oryza sativa)
    Chinese red yeast rice: Whit rice fermented by Monascus purpureus Went (yeast)
    purchased supplement
    Li Z, Seeram NP, Lee R, Thames G, Minutti C, Wang HJ, Heber D. Plasma clearance of lovastatin versus Chinese red yeast rice in healthy volunteers. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Dec;11(6):1031-8. doi: 10.1089/acm.2005.11.1031.
  81. Sage (Salvia officinalis)
    NA
    commercial ethanol extract and rosmarinic acid
    Qiang Z, Ye Z, Hauck C, Murphy PA, McCoy JA, Widrlechner MP, Reddy MB, Hendrich S. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Oct 11;137(3):1107-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.07.037.
  82. Schisandra chinensis BAILL. (five flavor fruit)
    fruit
    methanol and NADES extract
    Liu Y, Zhang Y, Chen SN, Friesen JB, Nikolić D, Choules MP, McAlpine JB, Lankin DC, Gemeinhart RA, Pauli GF. The influence of natural deep eutectic solvents on bioactive natural products: studying interactions between a hydrogel model and Schisandra chinensis metabolites. Fitoterapia. 2018 Jun;127:212-219. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2018.02.024.
  83. Shilianhua (Sinocrassula indica Berge)
    aerial parts of wild grown plants
    aqueous and ethanol extracts
    Yin J, Zuberi A, Gao Z, Liu D, Liu Z, Cefalu WT, Ye J. Effect of Shilianhua extract and its fractions on body weight of obese mice. Metabolism. 2008. 57(7 Suppl 1):S47-51. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2008.03.004.
  84. Soy (Glycine max)
    defatted soybean flakes
    ethanol extract, in tablets
    Pawlowski JW, Martin BR, McCabe GP, McCabe L, Jackson GS, Peacock M, Barnes S, Weaver CM. Impact of equol-producing capacity and soy-isoflavone profiles of supplements on bone calcium retention in postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015. 102(3):695-703. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.093906.  
        
  85. Soy (Glycine max)
    Sergeant S, Hallmark B, Mathias RA, Mustin TL, Ivester P, Bohannon ML, Ruczinski I, Johnstone L, Seeds MC, Chilton FH. Prospective clinical trial examining the impact of genetic variation in FADS1 on the metabolism of linoleic acid- and ɣ-linolenic acid-containing botanical oils. Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 May 1;111(5):1068-1078. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa023.     
  86. Soy (Glycine max)
    NA
    isoflavones: equol, genistein
    Song H, Hughes JR, Turner RT, Iwaniec UT, Doerge DR, Helferich WG. (±)-Equol does not interact with genistein on estrogen-dependent breast tumor growth. Food Chem Toxicol. 2020 Feb;136:110979. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.110979.
  87. Soy (Glycine max)
    NA
    purchased daidzein, daidzin, equol, genistein, genistin and “soy flavonoid products”
  88. St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum)
    leaf, flower (active) and stem (inactive)
    80% aqueous ethanol
    Amini Z, Boyd B, Doucet J, Ribnicky DM, Stephens JM. St. John's Wort inhibits adipocyte differentiation and induces insulin resistance in adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009. 388(1):146-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.07.137.   
  89. St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum)
    upper flowering tops
    acetone
    Duppong LM, Delate K, Liebman M, Horton R, Romero F, Kraus G, Petrich J, Chowdbury PK. The effect of natural mulches on crop performance, weed suppression and biochemical constituents of catnip and St. John's wort. Crop Sci. 2004;44(3):861-869.      
  90. St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum)
  91. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
    husk
    powdered husk fiber (0.75% soluble fiber)
    Wang ZQ, Yu Y, Zhang XH, Floyd ZE, Boudreau A, Lian K, Cefalu WT. Comparing the effects of nano-sized sugarcane fiber with cellulose and psyllium on hepatic cellular signaling in mice. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:2999-3012. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S30887.
  92. Sutherlandia frutescens (cancer bush)
    powdered vegetative parts
    aqueous extract
    Lei W, Browning JD Jr, Eichen PA, Lu CH, Mossine VV, Rottinghaus GE, Folk WR, Sun GY, Lubahn DB, Fritsche KL. Immuno-stimulatory activity of a polysaccharide-enriched fraction of Sutherlandia frutescens occurs by the toll-like receptor-4 signaling pathway. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Aug 22;172:247-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.013.      
     
  93. Thundergod vine (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook)
    de-barked roots
    ethanol extract followed by partition into ethyl acetate
    Ma J, Dey M, Yang H, Poulev A, Pouleva R, Dorn R, Lipsky PE, Kennelly EJ, Raskin I. Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive compounds from Tripterygium wilfordii. Phytochemistry. 2007 Apr;68(8):1172-8. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.02.021.
  94. Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
    Zhang HG, Kim H, Liu C, Yu S, Wang J, Grizzle WE, Kimberly RP, Barnes S. Curcumin reverses breast tumor exosomes mediated immune suppression of NK cell tumor cytotoxicity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Jul;1773(7):1116-23. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2007.04.015.       
  95. Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
    roots
    supercritical extract and hydroethanolic extract comparison
    Krasovsky J, Chang DH, Deng G, Yeung S, Lee M, Leung PC, Cunningham-Rundles S, Cassileth B, Dhodapkar MV. Inhibition of human dendritic cell activation by hydroethanolic but not lipophilic extracts of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Planta Med. 2009 Mar;75(4):312-5. doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1088367.
  96. Valerian (Valeriana officinialis L.)
    dried stems, leaves, roots
    DNA extract
    Xu H, Fabricant DS, Piersen CE, Bolton JL, Pezzuto JM, Fong H, Totura S, Farnsworth NR, Constantinou AI. A preliminary RAPD-PCR analysis of Cimicifuga species and other botanicals used for women's health. Phytomedicine. 2002. 9(8):757-62. doi: 10.1078/094471102321621403.
  97. Viburnum opulus L. (Cramp bark, Guelder rose)
    Dietz BM, Hajirahimkhan A, Dunlap TL, Bolton JL. Botanicals and their bioactive phytochemicals for women's health. Pharmacol Rev. 2016. 68(4):1026-1073. doi: 10.1124/pr.115.010843.
  98. Viburnum prunifolium L. (Black haw)
    dried stems, leaves, roots
    DNA extract
    Dietz BM, Hajirahimkhan A, Dunlap TL, Bolton JL. Botanicals and their bioactive phytochemicals for women's health. Pharmacol Rev. 2016 Oct;68(4):1026-1073. doi: 10.1124/pr.115.010843.   

    Xu H, Fabricant DS, Piersen CE, Bolton JL, Pezzuto JM, Fong H, Totura S, Farnsworth NR, Constantinou AI. A preliminary RAPD-PCR analysis of Cimicifuga species and other botanicals used for women's health. Phytomedicine. 2002. 9(8):757-62. doi: 10.1078/094471102321621403.      
  99. Vitex agnus-castus L. (chastetree)
    Liu J, Burdette JE, Xu H, Gu C, van Breemen RB, Bhat KP, Booth N, Constantinou AI, Pezzuto JM, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Bolton JL. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. J Agric Food Chem. 2001. 49(5):2472-9. doi: 10.1021/jf0014157
  100. Water plantain (Alisma plantago-aquatica L.)
    Overk CR, Yao P, Chen S, Deng S, Imai A, Main M, Schinkovitz A, Farnsworth NR, Pauli GF, Bolton JL. High-content screening and mechanism-based evaluation of estrogenic botanical extracts. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2008. 11(4):283-93. doi: 10.2174/138620708784246022.     
  101. Yam (wild) (Dioscorea villosa)
    rhizomes
    steroidal saponins from methanol extract
    Dong SH, Cai G, Napolitano JG, Nikolić D, Lankin DC, McAlpine JB, van Breemen RB, Soejarto DD, Pauli GF, Chen SN. Lipidated steroid saponins from Dioscorea villosa (wild yam). Fitoterapia. 2013. 91:113-124. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2013.07.018.